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  • Dynamic Range

    Nothing may be more important or difficult to judge because of what goes on during the production (from the mike to the final consumer product) of the analog or digital recordings to the realistic recreation of music than dynamic range. Gordon Holt defined dynamic range as: (1) The range of volume levels, in deciBels from softest to loudest, produced by a source of sounds; (2) The range of those levels which can be handled by a recording or reproducing system.

    And dynamics can be further subdivided into macro and micro-dynamics.

    Macrodynamics are pretty obvious as defined here:

    Musical Dynamics indicate the loudness of music. We use the Italian terms piano and forte to indicate soft and loud. They are usually abbreviated p and f.

    We can also add the word mezzo (m) to p and f to create mp (mezzo-piano) and mf (mezzo-forte). Mezzo-piano (mp) is moderately soft andmezzo-forte (mf) is moderately loud.

    More than one p or f indicates a softer or louder dynamic, such as pp orfff.
    List of Dynamics:
    • fff ---- louder than ff
    • ff ----- fortissimo ------ louder than f
    • f ------ forte -------------- loudly
    • mf --- mezzo-forte ------ moderately loud
    • mp -- mezzo-piano ----- moderately soft
    • p ----- piano -------------- softly
    • pp --- pianissimo ------ softer than p
    • ppp - softer than pp
    Click image for larger version

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    ​There are of course a few pieces that go outside this range such as ppppp or ffff. That is quite a range of sounds for any audio system to try and accurately reproduce.

    In addition, we also have to consider the concept of micro-dynamics or preferably, dynamic accents in the music defined here as:

    One final aspect of interest remains, that of musical dynamics, which are the variations in the loudness of the notes in a piece of music. There are two levels at which dynamics occur.
    At the micro level, each note in a piece of music can be played with a different strength. With a musician, this is unavoidable, but as with variations in timing (discussed earlier) it is also desirable, and contributes greatly to the natural expression of the playing.

    Strength of individual notes can be indicated in staff notation with articulations of force. Shown below are the three most commonly used of these.



    Now which type of dynamics is more important to the reproduction of music or are macro- and micro-dynamics both equally important? And do some piece of equipment reproduce dynamic range better than microdynamics or vice versa? How large is the system's dynamic range before it gives up the ghost or distortion increases? Is the reproduction of dynamics linear across the frequency range? In many cases, it's the ability of the equipment or recording to reproduce low frequency dynamics that makes or breaks the system (for instance tape vs. LP). What impact does the room play?

    To my ears, it is those dynamic accents that bring music to life. Otherwise music is just a series of notes/sounds being played in a relatively linear, boring pattern. When it comes to equipment for instance, here is where something like an electrostatic speaker separates itself from its competition. Electrostatic speakers have the racing car like quickness needed to capture and reproduce those musical accent better than most speakers.

    For many years, I sacrificed macro for microdynamic range. I just didn't hear any conventional driver speaker that possessed that ability to bring music to life (and for me maybe define the essence of musicality.) In fact, it wasn't until recently where I found a box speaker that could do both well.

    One could very well have opposite feelings depending on the type of music one listens to. Full scale orchestral lovers might favor equipment that reproduces the full range of macrodynamics. But contrast someone that listens to smaller scale music or jazz for instance, might feel the opposite way and tend to favor gear that reproduces those dynamic accents.
    Myles B. Astor, PhD, Administrator
    Senior Editor, Positive-Feedback.com
    ________________________________________

    -Magico S5 Mk.2 speakers with SPod feet
    -Goldmund Telos 280 stereo amp
    -Goldmund Mimesis 37S Nextgen preamplifier
    -Doshi V3.0 phonostage
    -VPI Vanquish direct-drive turntable
    -VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy dual pivot tonearm, VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy gimballed and SAT LM-12 arm
    -Lyra Atlas SL Lambda, Fuuga, vdh Colibri Master Signature, MutechHayabusa, MOFI Master Tracker, Sumiko Songbird cartridges
    -Technics RS1506 with Flux Magnetic heads, Doshi V3.0 tape stage (balanced)
    -Assorted cables including Transparent XL Gen. 5, Skogrand, Viero, Kubala-Sosna, Audience Au24SX, Genesis Advanced Technologies and Ensemble Power Cords
    -Accessories including Stillpoint Aperture panels, Cathedral Sound panels, Furutech NCF Nano AC receptacles; Silver Circle Tchaik 6 PLC, Symposium ISIS and SRA Craz racks, Audiodharma Cable Cooker, Symposium Ultra and assorted SRA platforms.

  • #2
    To my ears, it is those dynamic accents that bring music to life. Otherwise music is just a series of notes/sounds being played in a relatively linear, boring pattern. When it comes to equipment for instance, here is where something like an electrostatic speaker separates itself from its competition. Electrostatic speakers have the racing car like quickness needed to capture and reproduce those musical accent better than most speakers.




    Hi Myles, like you, this is a HUGELY important aspect of sound reproduction for me and where so many components I have listened to over the last 25 years have left me wanting...haven't listened to horn speakers though. I also think of this as vibrancy in music. Even a gently plucked guitar string has so much energy and this energy transmission is hugely important for me....more so than macro dynamics. This is one reason I like triode amps. I would really like to see this area given much more importance by both reviewers and manufacturers. Good to know you rate your S5s highly in this area....I haven't heard them as yet but had my concerns, especially at low to moderate volumes. Thanks for posting this topic. I hope you get to review the Kondo Kagura as I suspect they will excel in this area. Happy listening.

    Comment


    • #3
      I would also add Tonal Range & Tonal Depth to the conversation, specially when digital is involved. IME, aside from mains, cables including power cords and electronics are the main culprits of the type of linearity you mention and not so much the speakers. The harshness and compression caused by mains is the worst type of linearity.

      david
      Manufacturer: American Sound Turntables and The Nothing Rack
      Distribution: NEODIO

      Special Sales: van den Hul
      Industry Representation: Lamm, Kharma OLS Speakers, Ortofon, ZYX, Keith Monks, Audio Desk, Jensen Transformer, Venta Airwasher

      Unique Items: Vintage Horn Speakers
      http://www.audionirvana.org/forum/ti...stening-room-1
      http://www.audionirvana.org/forum/ti...earfield-setup

      Comment


      • #4
        Originally posted by ashandger View Post



        Hi Myles, like you, this is a HUGELY important aspect of sound reproduction for me and where so many components I have listened to over the last 25 years have left me wanting...haven't listened to horn speakers though. I also think of this as vibrancy in music. Even a gently plucked guitar string has so much energy and this energy transmission is hugely important for me....more so than macro dynamics. This is one reason I like triode amps. I would really like to see this area given much more importance by both reviewers and manufacturers. Good to know you rate your S5s highly in this area....I haven't heard them as yet but had my concerns, especially at low to moderate volumes. Thanks for posting this topic. I hope you get to review the Kondo Kagura as I suspect they will excel in this area. Happy listening.



        I was just about to write something very similar in my own reply but while I was thinking thru the next sentence, read yours. Totally agree with this! There is sense of energy that live music has that just seems to escape reproduced music. A visceral nature to the music that is just as easily felt on the skin and sometimes in the gut as it is heard.


        Kronos Sparta -> Trinity Phono -> Trinity Pre -> CH Precision A1 -> Magico S7s

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by allenh View Post
          There is sense of energy that live music has that just seems to escape reproduced music. A visceral nature to the music that is just as easily felt on the skin and sometimes in the gut as it is heard.
          You're describing HORNS Allen!

          david
          Manufacturer: American Sound Turntables and The Nothing Rack
          Distribution: NEODIO

          Special Sales: van den Hul
          Industry Representation: Lamm, Kharma OLS Speakers, Ortofon, ZYX, Keith Monks, Audio Desk, Jensen Transformer, Venta Airwasher

          Unique Items: Vintage Horn Speakers
          http://www.audionirvana.org/forum/ti...stening-room-1
          http://www.audionirvana.org/forum/ti...earfield-setup

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by ashandger View Post
            Hi Myles, like you, this is a HUGELY important aspect of sound reproduction for me and where so many components I have listened to over the last 25 years have left me wanting...haven't listened to horn speakers though. I also think of this as vibrancy in music. Even a gently plucked guitar string has so much energy and this energy transmission is hugely important for me....more so than macro dynamics. This is one reason I like triode amps. I would really like to see this area given much more importance by both reviewers and manufacturers. Good to know you rate your S5s highly in this area....I haven't heard them as yet but had my concerns, especially at low to moderate volumes. Thanks for posting this topic. I hope you get to review the Kondo Kagura as I suspect they will excel in this area. Happy listening.
            By extension, and I know generalizations get you shot down faster than an old school nun rapping you on the knuckles for shooting a spitball at Johnny, reproduction of dynamic accents is one area that separates tube from solid-state electronics. The ability to render these microdynamics is what makes tube electronics special and is in part responsible for that tube "magic." Certain instruments, take the vibrancy of Dave Grisman's mandolin on the Garcia-Grisman tape, really comes through more on tubes than solid-state. And moreso on the tape than than on the MOFI reissue.
            Myles B. Astor, PhD, Administrator
            Senior Editor, Positive-Feedback.com
            ________________________________________

            -Magico S5 Mk.2 speakers with SPod feet
            -Goldmund Telos 280 stereo amp
            -Goldmund Mimesis 37S Nextgen preamplifier
            -Doshi V3.0 phonostage
            -VPI Vanquish direct-drive turntable
            -VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy dual pivot tonearm, VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy gimballed and SAT LM-12 arm
            -Lyra Atlas SL Lambda, Fuuga, vdh Colibri Master Signature, MutechHayabusa, MOFI Master Tracker, Sumiko Songbird cartridges
            -Technics RS1506 with Flux Magnetic heads, Doshi V3.0 tape stage (balanced)
            -Assorted cables including Transparent XL Gen. 5, Skogrand, Viero, Kubala-Sosna, Audience Au24SX, Genesis Advanced Technologies and Ensemble Power Cords
            -Accessories including Stillpoint Aperture panels, Cathedral Sound panels, Furutech NCF Nano AC receptacles; Silver Circle Tchaik 6 PLC, Symposium ISIS and SRA Craz racks, Audiodharma Cable Cooker, Symposium Ultra and assorted SRA platforms.

            Comment


            • #7
              Originally posted by david k View Post
              I would also add Tonal Range & Tonal Depth to the conversation, specially when digital is involved. IME, aside from mains, cables including power cords and electronics are the main culprits of the type of linearity you mention and not so much the speakers. The harshness and compression caused by mains is the worst type of linearity.

              david
              Or non-linearity.

              We'll get to tone color too.
              Myles B. Astor, PhD, Administrator
              Senior Editor, Positive-Feedback.com
              ________________________________________

              -Magico S5 Mk.2 speakers with SPod feet
              -Goldmund Telos 280 stereo amp
              -Goldmund Mimesis 37S Nextgen preamplifier
              -Doshi V3.0 phonostage
              -VPI Vanquish direct-drive turntable
              -VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy dual pivot tonearm, VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy gimballed and SAT LM-12 arm
              -Lyra Atlas SL Lambda, Fuuga, vdh Colibri Master Signature, MutechHayabusa, MOFI Master Tracker, Sumiko Songbird cartridges
              -Technics RS1506 with Flux Magnetic heads, Doshi V3.0 tape stage (balanced)
              -Assorted cables including Transparent XL Gen. 5, Skogrand, Viero, Kubala-Sosna, Audience Au24SX, Genesis Advanced Technologies and Ensemble Power Cords
              -Accessories including Stillpoint Aperture panels, Cathedral Sound panels, Furutech NCF Nano AC receptacles; Silver Circle Tchaik 6 PLC, Symposium ISIS and SRA Craz racks, Audiodharma Cable Cooker, Symposium Ultra and assorted SRA platforms.

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by david k View Post

                You're describing HORNS Allen!

                david

                Horns definitely can have that quality!
                Myles B. Astor, PhD, Administrator
                Senior Editor, Positive-Feedback.com
                ________________________________________

                -Magico S5 Mk.2 speakers with SPod feet
                -Goldmund Telos 280 stereo amp
                -Goldmund Mimesis 37S Nextgen preamplifier
                -Doshi V3.0 phonostage
                -VPI Vanquish direct-drive turntable
                -VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy dual pivot tonearm, VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy gimballed and SAT LM-12 arm
                -Lyra Atlas SL Lambda, Fuuga, vdh Colibri Master Signature, MutechHayabusa, MOFI Master Tracker, Sumiko Songbird cartridges
                -Technics RS1506 with Flux Magnetic heads, Doshi V3.0 tape stage (balanced)
                -Assorted cables including Transparent XL Gen. 5, Skogrand, Viero, Kubala-Sosna, Audience Au24SX, Genesis Advanced Technologies and Ensemble Power Cords
                -Accessories including Stillpoint Aperture panels, Cathedral Sound panels, Furutech NCF Nano AC receptacles; Silver Circle Tchaik 6 PLC, Symposium ISIS and SRA Craz racks, Audiodharma Cable Cooker, Symposium Ultra and assorted SRA platforms.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by MylesBAstor View Post
                  ...

                  Now which type of dynamics is more important to the reproduction of music or are macro- and micro-dynamics both equally important? And do some piece of equipment reproduce dynamic range better than microdynamics or vice versa? How large is the system's dynamic range before it gives up the ghost or distortion increases? Is the reproduction of dynamics linear across the frequency range? In many cases, it's the ability of the equipment or recording to reproduce low frequency dynamics that makes or breaks the system (for instance tape vs. LP). What impact does the room play?

                  To my ears, it is those dynamic accents that bring music to life. Otherwise music is just a series of notes/sounds being played in a relatively linear, boring pattern. When it comes to equipment for instance, here is where something like an electrostatic speaker separates itself from its competition. Electrostatic speakers have the racing car like quickness needed to capture and reproduce those musical accent better than most speakers.

                  For many years, I sacrificed macro for microdynamic range. I just didn't hear any conventional driver speaker that possessed that ability to bring music to life (and for me maybe define the essence of musicality.) In fact, it wasn't until recently where I found a box speaker that could do both well.

                  One could very well have opposite feelings depending on the type of music one listens to. Full scale orchestral lovers might favor equipment that reproduces the full range of macrodynamics. But contrast someone that listens to smaller scale music or jazz for instance, might feel the opposite way and tend to favor gear that reproduces those dynamic accents.
                  Not only are there dynamic states - a tone or music at a certain volume - and the ability to reproduce a given state without distortion, there are dynamic transitions and the ability of audio gear to resolve them, the ability, as it were, for a piece of equipment to follow the score and the conductors instruction.

                  For example: Descrescendo poco a poco - an instruction to play softer little by little, where dynamics may be changing over a relatively short period of time with the point of the effect in some cases being the journey more so than the destination. (But don't underestimate the destination - dynamic range deserves its due.) Can we think of state transition as the resolution of the gradation of dynamic range? I understand the ability to discriminate small differences and changes in volume as a part of micro dynamics. Differences may occur swiftly or slowly or in between; an acknowledgement that dynamics occurs in the context of tempo and the ability of an audio system to capture the reality of the originating event. Think Debussey's La Mer for example.

                  Accents of course are hugely important. Just as a musician, say a flutist, has the ability to vary volume in transition according to her breath control, so there is also the variability in different types of note accent. So important in percussion; accents can be light, medium or strong. Ornamentations (turns, glissandos, trills, etc.) are an articulation cousin of accent. Articulation is artistry and Miles so rightly points out the ability of a piece of gear or system to differentiate performance here reflects its ability to reproduce that artistry, to bring it to life. It is a way for a music reproducing system to connect us to the humanity of a performance. As allenh so elegantly describes, the ability of audio gear to deliver: "a visceral nature to the music that is just as easily felt on the skin and sometimes in the gut as it is heard. "

                  Micro dynamics, dynamic accent and dynamic transition coupled to micro and macro tempo transitions are key elements in my vocabulary to the notion of musical texture.

                  Thank you for starting these topics and having a place to discuss jargon.




                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by david k View Post

                    You're describing HORNS Allen!

                    david
                    Maybe I need to hear more horns, but the only one that gave me that sensation were the Voltis. Granted, I've only heard horns at shows and not properly setup in a showroom.
                    Kronos Sparta -> Trinity Phono -> Trinity Pre -> CH Precision A1 -> Magico S7s

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by tima View Post

                      Not only are there dynamic states - a tone or music at a certain volume - and the ability to reproduce a given state without distortion, there are dynamic transitions and the ability of audio gear to resolve them, the ability, as it were, for a piece of equipment to follow the score and the conductors instruction.

                      For example: Descrescendo poco a poco - an instruction to play softer little by little, where dynamics may be changing over a relatively short period of time with the point of the effect in some cases being the journey more so than the destination. (But don't underestimate the destination - dynamic range deserves its due.) Can we think of state transition as the resolution of the gradation of dynamic range? I understand the ability to discriminate small differences and changes in volume as a part of micro dynamics. Differences may occur swiftly or slowly or in between; an acknowledgement that dynamics occurs in the context of tempo and the ability of an audio system to capture the reality of the originating event. Think Debussey's La Mer for example.

                      Accents of course are hugely important. Just as a musician, say a flutist, has the ability to vary volume in transition according to her breath control, so there is also the variability in different types of note accent. So important in percussion; accents can be light, medium or strong. Ornamentations (turns, glissandos, trills, etc.) are an articulation cousin of accent. Articulation is artistry and Miles so rightly points out the ability of a piece of gear or system to differentiate performance here reflects its ability to reproduce that artistry, to bring it to life. It is a way for a music reproducing system to connect us to the humanity of a performance. As allenh so elegantly describes, the ability of audio gear to deliver: "a visceral nature to the music that is just as easily felt on the skin and sometimes in the gut as it is heard. "

                      Micro dynamics, dynamic accent and dynamic transition coupled to micro and macro tempo transitions are key elements in my vocabulary to the notion of musical texture.

                      Thank you for starting these topics and having a place to discuss jargon.



                      Great input. All I want to do is provide a framework for discussion and let everyone chime in. Know we even have a few musicians here so would love their insights too!
                      Myles B. Astor, PhD, Administrator
                      Senior Editor, Positive-Feedback.com
                      ________________________________________

                      -Magico S5 Mk.2 speakers with SPod feet
                      -Goldmund Telos 280 stereo amp
                      -Goldmund Mimesis 37S Nextgen preamplifier
                      -Doshi V3.0 phonostage
                      -VPI Vanquish direct-drive turntable
                      -VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy dual pivot tonearm, VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy gimballed and SAT LM-12 arm
                      -Lyra Atlas SL Lambda, Fuuga, vdh Colibri Master Signature, MutechHayabusa, MOFI Master Tracker, Sumiko Songbird cartridges
                      -Technics RS1506 with Flux Magnetic heads, Doshi V3.0 tape stage (balanced)
                      -Assorted cables including Transparent XL Gen. 5, Skogrand, Viero, Kubala-Sosna, Audience Au24SX, Genesis Advanced Technologies and Ensemble Power Cords
                      -Accessories including Stillpoint Aperture panels, Cathedral Sound panels, Furutech NCF Nano AC receptacles; Silver Circle Tchaik 6 PLC, Symposium ISIS and SRA Craz racks, Audiodharma Cable Cooker, Symposium Ultra and assorted SRA platforms.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Show conditions are tough Allen, hit & miss depending on the room and the group showing together. Finding good horns is tough in the US, not sure how many dealers actually carry them.

                        david

                        Originally posted by allenh View Post

                        Maybe I need to hear more horns, but the only one that gave me that sensation were the Voltis. Granted, I've only heard horns at shows and not properly setup in a showroom.
                        Last edited by david k; 05-20-2016, 10:13 AM.
                        Manufacturer: American Sound Turntables and The Nothing Rack
                        Distribution: NEODIO

                        Special Sales: van den Hul
                        Industry Representation: Lamm, Kharma OLS Speakers, Ortofon, ZYX, Keith Monks, Audio Desk, Jensen Transformer, Venta Airwasher

                        Unique Items: Vintage Horn Speakers
                        http://www.audionirvana.org/forum/ti...stening-room-1
                        http://www.audionirvana.org/forum/ti...earfield-setup

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          http://www.performancerecordings.com/inflection.html
                          Myles B. Astor, PhD, Administrator
                          Senior Editor, Positive-Feedback.com
                          ________________________________________

                          -Magico S5 Mk.2 speakers with SPod feet
                          -Goldmund Telos 280 stereo amp
                          -Goldmund Mimesis 37S Nextgen preamplifier
                          -Doshi V3.0 phonostage
                          -VPI Vanquish direct-drive turntable
                          -VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy dual pivot tonearm, VPI 12-inch 3D Fat Boy gimballed and SAT LM-12 arm
                          -Lyra Atlas SL Lambda, Fuuga, vdh Colibri Master Signature, MutechHayabusa, MOFI Master Tracker, Sumiko Songbird cartridges
                          -Technics RS1506 with Flux Magnetic heads, Doshi V3.0 tape stage (balanced)
                          -Assorted cables including Transparent XL Gen. 5, Skogrand, Viero, Kubala-Sosna, Audience Au24SX, Genesis Advanced Technologies and Ensemble Power Cords
                          -Accessories including Stillpoint Aperture panels, Cathedral Sound panels, Furutech NCF Nano AC receptacles; Silver Circle Tchaik 6 PLC, Symposium ISIS and SRA Craz racks, Audiodharma Cable Cooker, Symposium Ultra and assorted SRA platforms.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            This is one reason I have gravitated towards high efficiency designs. It seems most of the systems I've heard that excel at natural dynamics are also higher efficiency . it takes massive power to generate proper dynamics on lower efficiency speakers, and just because an amp specs out at a lot of watts, doesn't mean it will be properly dynamic.
                            Steve Lefkowicz
                            Senior Associate Editor at Positive Feedback
                            -
                            Analog: Linn LP12 (MOSE/Hercules II), Ittok, Dynavector 19a, iPhono2; Pro-Ject RPM-1 Carbon, Sumiko Pearl, iFi iPhono.
                            Digital: Samsung 300E5C notebook, JRiver Media Center 26, Tidal HiFi and Qobuz Studio), iFi iDAC2, iFi iUSB3, iPurifier2.
                            Electronics: Burson Conductor Virtuoso, DIY switch-box with TKD 10K pot, Antique Sound Labs MG-SI15DT-S, Burson Timekeeper Virtuoso, Jolida JD1000P, B&K ST140.
                            Speakers: Tekton Double Impact, Tekton Lore, Magneplaner .7, ELAC Debut2 B6.2, Debut F5 and Debut B6, Emotiva Airmotiv B1, Sound Dynamics 300ti.
                            Interconnects: Morrow Audio MA1, Vermouth Audio Black Pearl, Nordost Solar Wind, Audioquest Evergreen
                            Speaker cables: Morrow Audio SP4, Vermouth Audio Red Velvet, Nordost Solar Wind, Nordost Flatline, Audioquest Q2.
                            Digital cables: Straightwire USB Link, Aural Symphonics Digital Standard xxv USB, Belkin PureAV.
                            Accessories: Sound Organization turntable shelf, Mondo racks, Pangea Audio Vulcan racks, Pi Audio Group Über BUSS, Monster HTS2000 power conditioner, Sound Organization speaker stands, Pangea Audio speaker stands, Kinetronics anti-static brush, Pro-Ject VC-S record cleaner, Spin Clean record cleaner.
                            Headphones: Schiit Valhalla amp, Meze Audio 99 Classic and 99 Neo, Beyerdynamic DT770Pro, 1More Triple Driver Over Ear, 1More MK801, 1More Triple Driver IEM

                            http://www.audionirvana.org/forum/ti...ounding-system

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by MylesBAstor View Post

                              Great input. All I want to do is provide a framework for discussion and let everyone chime in. Know we even have a few musicians here so would love their insights too!
                              OK Myles. As a musician I don't believe the range of musical dynamics and their markings can be heard over an audio system except at the greatest macro levels. As someone who has played with orchestras and gone to hundreds of concerts all over the world the life of live music can't be translated into your home. You can't hear for example intonation between players over a recording. It isnt there.and it isn't obvious over an audio system in the way it is in life. A photo of the Grand Canyon isn't the real thing. It's a reproduction. The same is true in music. Our systems can only give us a convincing facsimile of what actually happened in life.
                              TW Acustic TT with Ref motor & controller; Tri-Planar Arm; Ortofon Windfeld-Ti Cartridge, Harmonix-Combak platter matte & weight; Arcam R Phono Preamp; KLAudio Ultrasonic Record Cleaner.

                              Bluesound Vault-2 Music Server & Streamer

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                              Sennheiser HDV 650 Headphone Amp; Sennheiser HD1200s Headphones.

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